The City of Athens
Athens has a long history, dating from the first settlement in the Neolithic Age. In the 5th century B.C. (the “Golden Age of Pericles”) the city’s values and civilization acquired a universal significance. Over the years, a multitude of conquerors occupied Athens, and erected unique, splendid monuments – a rare historical palimpsest. In 1834, it became the capital of the modern Greek state and has become an attractive modern metropolis with unrivalled charm.
Around the Acropolis
- The tour starts at the temple of Olympian Zeus (6th century B.C.), one of the largest in antiquity, and close to Hadrian’s Arch (131 A.D.), which forms the symbolic entrance to the city.
- From there, walking along Dionysiou Areopagitou Street (on the south side of the Acropolis) you will find the ancient Theatre of Dionysus (5th century B.C.), where most of the works by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes were performed.
- Nearby lie the ruins of the Asklepieion (5th century B.C.), the Stoa of Eumenes (2th century B.C.) and the Odeon of Herod Atticus, which was built in 161 A.D. and is nowadays the venue of several performances of the Athens Festival.
- From there you climb up to the sacred hill of the Acropolis, the site of some of the most important masterpieces of worldwide architecture and art, the most renowned of which is the Parthenon temple.
- Other impressive monuments on the Acropolis are: the Propylaea, the temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion. Moreover, from the hill you have an impressive view of the city.
- Only 300m away from the sacred hill of Acropolis stands the impressive Acropolis Museum, one of the most important contemporary works of architecture in Athens. It is made of steel, glass and concrete and it houses 4,000 priceless finds from the Acropolis monuments that represent its history and function as the most important religious centre of ancient Athens.
- Coming down from the Acropolis you arrive at the Areios Pagos, the most ancient law court of the world. Opposite the Acropolis is Philopappou Hill, with its beautiful cobbled paths and the Roman monument by the same name on its top, while close by is the Pnyx, where the citizens of ancient Athens used to assemble and exert their democratic rights.
- At the foot of the Acropolis lies the Ancient Agora, which was the commercial, political and religious centre of ancient Athens.
- From there, via Ermou Street, you arrive at the Kerameikos, the largest cemetery of the ancient city, with impressive tomb sculptures and stelae. The Iridanos River, sacred in antiquity, runs through the archaeological site.
However, our tour of enchanting Athens does not restrict itself only to these unique archaeological sites.
Around the neighborhoods of the historical centre
- The “core” of the historic centre is the Plaka neighborhood (at the eastern side of the Acropolis), which has been inhabited without interruption since antiquity. When you walk through the narrow labyrinthine streets lined with houses and mansions from the time of the Turkish occupation and the neoclassical period (19th c.), you will have the impression of travelling with a “time machine”. You will encounter ancient monuments, such as the Lysikrates Monument, erected by a wealthy donor of theatrical performances, the Roman Agora with the famed “Tower of the Winds” (1st c. B.C.) and Hadrian’s Library (132 A.D.), scores of bigger and smaller churches, true masterpieces of Byzantine art and architecture, as well as remnants of the Ottoman period (Fetihie Mosque, Tzistaraki Mosque, the Turkish Bath near the Tower of the Winds, the Muslim Seminary, et al.). There are also some interesting museums (Folk Art Museum, Museum of Greek Children’s Art, Museum of Popular Musical Instruments, Frysira Art Gallery, etc.), lots of picturesque taverns, cafés, bars, as well as shops selling souvenirs and traditional Greek products.
- Continuing from Plaka you arrive at Monastiraki, a characteristic area of “old” Athens, with narrow streets and small buildings where the city’s traditional bazaar (Yousouroum) is held. Close to it is the Psyrri area, a traditional neighborhood which during the past few years has evolved into one of the most important “centres” of the town’s nightlife, with scores of bars, taverns, clubs, etc.
- However, the “heart” of the historical centre is the traditional commercial neighborhood, with more than 2,500 shops of all kinds, which spreads out on the streets surrounding Ermou Street (the city’s best-known commercial street). The western “border” of the area is Athinas Street, where the foodstuff commerce is concentrated, reminding one strongly of the Near East. Here are situated, among others, the neoclassical Town Hall, the Municipal Market (where meat, fish and vegetables are sold) and spacious Kotzias Square.
- Within the boundaries of Athens’s historical centre are also the picturesque neighborhoods of Makriyianni (close to the Acropolis, where the Acropolis Museum stands), Ano Petralona, Theseion (where you will find small interesting museums and scores of cafés, bars and restaurants), Kerameikos and Metaxourgeio, as well as the Gazi area, old gas plant, which has now been turned into a cultural centre of the municipality of Athens (“Technopolis”).
- Syntagma Square is the main central squares of the town; they are linked by Stadiou Street and Panepistimiou Avenue, along which some of the town’s most beautiful neoclassical buildings have been erected. Dominating Syntagma Squares the Greek Parliament building and in front of it the Monument of the Unknown Soldier, guarded by the Evzones in traditional costume. From this square starts the beautiful National Garden (40 acres), south of which stands the impressive Zappeion Mansion (1874-1888). From there you can continue towards the Presidential Mansion (1897) and thence to the Panathenaikon (Kallimarmaro) Stadium, where the first Olympic Games in modern history were held (1896). From there, crossing the Mets neighborhood, the road leads you to the First Cemetery, the oldest one in Athens, basically an outdoor sculpture display with a wealth of wonderful monumental tombstones by some of the most important sculptors of the 19th and 20th centuries.
- From Omonia Square starts Patission street, a busy street with interesting buildings, amongst which are the neoclassical mansions of the Polytechnic School and the National Archaeological Museum, which ranks among the leading museums in the world and hosts rare art treasures from the Neolithic era up to the Roman period.
- Close to the museum is the Exarcheia area, a charming and very lively neighborhood, traditionally a meeting point and home to many students and artists.
- From Exarcheia, crossing the Neapoli neighborhood, you can climb the verdant Lycabettus Hill. From its top you have a view of the entire city, all the way to the sea.
- On the other side of the hill is the Kolonaki neighborhood, whose boundary is Vassilissis Sophias Avenue, one of the most grandiose streets of Athens with beautiful buildings, many museums (Cycladic Art Museum, Benaki Museum, Byzantine and Christian Museum, War Museum, National Gallery) and green areas. In Kolonaki, which is considered to be the most “aristocratic” area of the centre of Athens, you will find many shops selling expensive brands and haute couture, modern restaurants, bars and cafés, while it is worthwhile to take a stroll through the central streets with their art déco, art nouveau and interbellum buildings.
Around the suburbs
- The southern suburbs, located on the coast of the Saronic Gulf, offer many opportunities to take a walk along the seaside, while you will also find many beautiful organized and free beaches, large shopping centers and nightclubs (especially during the summer).
- In the Maroussi suburb (north of the centre) are the facilities of the Olympic Athletic Centre of Athens, where the majority of the athletic events were held during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.
- Kifissia (north of Maroussi) is also worth a visit, with its beautiful villas and impressive mansions.
Moreover, if you wish to leave the centre behind you, you may visit, among other things, the neighboring town of Piraeus, Greece’s main port (which nowadays forms one big conglomerate with Athens), the Daphni Monastery (11 km. west), one of the most significant Byzantine monuments of the country (12th c.) with unique mosaics, the Kaisariani Monastery (5 km. east), which was founded in the 2nd century, the Temple of Poseidon (5thc. B.C.) on Cape Sounion (58 km. south), following a wonderful route along the coast, the area of the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) with the Tomb of Marathon, the archaeological sites of Eleusina (23 km. west), of Amphiareion (48 km. northeast), of Vravron (38 km. east) and Ramnous (close to Marathon), as well as the wonderful surrounding mountain massifs of Parnitha, Penteli and Hymettos, all suitable for hiking.